We’ve known for a long time that Unarmed Civilian Protection works because of the testimonies of communities and field teams around the world. In addition, the published evidence for Unarmed Civilian Protection as a viable and effective approach is strong, and growing stronger. The below provide an overview of research on Unarmed Civilian Protection practices across a range of contexts.
Research and Reports by NP
- Gaps in Formal Education in Iraq | Iraq | December 2021
A research study conducted by the Education Consortium of Iraq (ECI) – comprised of the Norwegian Refugee Council, Save the Children, Mercy Corps, and NP– has identified areas to improve in education infrastructure, personnel, and reintegration of students into the formal system across six governorates.
Link to the Report
- Building Peace Changing Lives: Role and Participation of Women in Peace and Security in Myanmar, Philippines and Thailand | Philippines | March 23, 2021
This study, conducted by NP Philippines in collaboration with the Canada Fund for Local Initiatices (CFLI). This study presents lessons learned and conclusions to highlight the significant gains of women peacebuilding and emphasize the need for concrete actions to implement and institutionalize WPS agenda in the three countries in particular and in ASEAN in general.
Link: Policy Brief
- Strengthening the Safe School Community | United States | October 2020
Exploring the Work and Objectives of School Safety and Security Specialists. Conducted by Rand Engel for Nonviolent Peaceforce & Nonviolence International.
Link to Paper
Women Contributing to Peace | Myanmar | March 6, 2019
The study, conducted NP in partnership with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), collected data from August 2018 to January 2019. The map, intended as a quick guide, lists 674 women from 383 organizations who contribute to peace building.
Link: Electronic copies of the maps, along with additional information about women contributing to peace in Myanmar
Link: Press release from U.S. Embassy in Burma
Reviews and Evaluations of NP
- Unarmed Civilian Protection Updates, Challenges & Opportunities (2022)
- Global review of good practices in the field of unarmed civilian protection
- "Examining Unarmed Civilian Protection in the UN Context: A Complement and Contribution to POC," Consultation for Member States, New York (2019).
- “Unarmed Civilian Peacekeeping,” Documentation of a symposium, Bonn (2015).
- "What would the UN Peace Operations Panel Recommend if it were led by Women, Civil Society Organizations, and Local Actors Living in Conflict?" Event report, NGO CSW Forum Parallel Event, New York (2015).
- Doss, A. "Unarmed Civilian Peacekeeping: Has its Time Come?" Aide Mémoire, Geneva Briefing and Dialogue (2013).
- Cabactulan, L & C Coleman. "Broadening the concept of Peacekeeping: the Contribution of Civil Society to Unarmed Protection of Civilians." High-Level Briefing at the United Nations, New York (2012).
UCP Research Highlights
- Gray, Felicity. "Relational R2P? Civilian-Led Prevention and Protection against Atrocity Crimes", Global Responsibility to Protect (published online ahead of print 2022).
- Gray, Felicity. “Chapter 11: ‘A Different Kind of Weapon’: Ethical Dilemmas and Nonviolent Civilian Protection." Wicked Problems: The Ethics of Action for Peace, Rights, and Justice, Oxford University Press, New York, 2022.
- Easthom, Tiffany. “Community Resiliency, Conflict, and COVID-19.” Peace Review 33, no.2 (2021): 263-269
- Oakley, Derek. “What Is the Relationship between the Situated Learning of Unarmed Civilian Protection Workers and Gendered Power Dynamics?” Lancaster University, Lancaster, 2020, p. 236.
- Julian, Rachel, "The Transformative Impact of Unarmed Civilian Protection," Global Society 34(1): 99-111, 2020.
- Pax Christi International, A Policymaker’s Tool for Effective, Nonviolent Strategies for Sustainable Peace," October 2021.
- Harley Henigson, “Community Engagement in UN Peacekeeping Operations: A People-Centered Approach to Protecting Civilians,” International Peace Institute, November 2020.
- McCarthy, Eli S., ed. A Just Peace Ethic Primer: Building Sustainable Peace and Breaking Cycles of Violence. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2020.
- Rachel Julian and Russell Gasser (2019) ‘Soldiers, Civilians and Peacekeeping – Evidence and False Assumptions’, International Peacekeeping 26(1): 22-54.
- Wallace, M.S. Security without Weapons: Rethinking Violence, Nonviolent Action, and Civilian Protection (Interventions). New York: Routledge, 2017.
- Furnari, Ellen. Wielding Nonviolence in the Midst of Violence: Case Studies of Good Practices in UCP. Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2016
- "Unarmed Civilian Protection: The Methodology and Its Relevance for Norwegian Church-Based Organizations and Their Partners" by the Norwegian Ecumenical Peace Platform - October 2016
- Furnari, Ellen, Huibert Oldenhuis, and Rachel Julian. "Securing space for local peacebuilding: the role of international and national civilian peacekeepers." Peacebuilding 3, no. 3 (2015): 297-313.
- Julian, Rachel, and Christine Schweitzer. "The Origins and Development of Unarmed Civilian Peacekeeping." Peace Review 27, no. 1 (2014): 1-8.
- Rossi, Alessandro. “The Glass Ceiling for UCP in Inter-Governmental Organizations.” Peace Review 27, no. 1 (2014): 9-17.
- Eguren, Luis Enrique. “The Notion of Space in International Accompaniment.” Peace Review 27, no. 1 (2014): 18-24.Eguren, Luis Enrique. “The Notion of Space in International Accompaniment.” Peace Review 27, no. 1
- Furnari, Ellen. “Relationships Are Critical for Peacekeeping.” Peace Review 27, no.1 (2014): 25-30
- Easthom, Tiffany. “The South Sudan Weapons Free Zone.” Peace Review 27, no.1 (2014): 31-36
- Wallis, Tim. “Saving Lives, Saving Souls.” Peace Review 27, no. 1 (2014): 37-42
- Engelbrecht, Georgi and Vidushi Kaushik. “Community-Based Protection Mechanisms.” Peace Review 27, no. 1 (2014): 43-51
- Gehrmann, Richard. Matt Grant and Samantha Rose. “Australian Unarmed Peacekeepers on Bougainville, 1997–2003.” Peace Review 27, no. 1 (2014): 52-60
- Venturi, Bernardo. "Mainstreaming Unarmed Civilian Peacekeeping." Peace Review 27, no. 1 (2014): 61-66.
- Beckman, Kara, and Solberg, Kenneth B. “Measuring the Impact of Unarmed Civilian Peacekeeping: A Pilot Study” (2013).
- Carrière, Rolf, Rachel Julian, Christine Schweitzer, and Tim Wallis. Civilian peacekeeping: a barely tapped resource. Edited by Christine Schweitzer. Belm-Vehrte: Sozio-Publ., 2010.
- Schweitzer, Christine. “Nonviolent Peaceforce Feasibility Study,” Feasibility Study, Hamburg/St. Paul, 2001.
Sampling of Related Works
- Felicity Gray (2022) 'Protection as connection: feminist relational theory and protecting civilians from violence in South Sudan', Journal of Global Ethics 18(1): 152-170.
- Jana Krause, Erin Kamler (2022) 'Ceasefires and Civilian Protection Monitoring in Myanmar', Global Studies Quarterly 2(1).
- Margaux Pinaud (2021) ‘Home-Grown Peace: Civil Society Roles in Ceasefire Monitoring’, International Peacekeeping 28(3): 470-495.
- Congo Research Group (2020), Building Relationships, Building Peace: The Role of Civilians and Civil Society in Preventing Mass Atrocities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Washington D.C.: United State Holocaust Memorial Museum.
- Peris Jones and Wangui Kimari (2019) ‘Security beyond the men: Women and their everyday security apparatus in Mathare, Nairobi’, Urban Studies 56(9): 1835-1849.
- Joseph Bock et al. (2019) Halting Hate: How to Use the Interruption Model to Counter Hate-Motivated Violence, American Arbitration Association.
- Jana Krause (2018) Resilient Communities: Non-Violence and Civilian Agency in Communal War, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Nerve Macaspac (2019) ‘Insurgent Peace: Community-Led Peacebuilding of Indigenous Peoples in Sagada, Philippines’, Geopolitics 24(4): 839-877.
- Oliver Kaplan (2017) Resisting War: How Communities Protect Themselves, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Veronique Dudouet (2017) Powering to Peace: Integrated Civil Resistance and Peacebuilding Strategies, International Center on Nonviolent Conflict, vol. 1.
- Landon Hancock (2016) ‘Agency and peacebuilding: The promise of local zones of peace’, Peacebuilding, 5(3), 255–269.
- Jeffrey A. Butts (et al.) (2015) ‘Cure violence: A public health model to reduce gun violence’, Annual Review of Public Health (36): 39–53.
- Georgi Engelbrecht and Vidushi Kaushik (2015) ‘Community-based protection mechanisms’, Peace Review 27(1), 43–51.
- Sara Koopman (2014) ‘Making space for peace: International protective accompaniment in Colombia’, in F. McConnell, N. Megoran, & P. Williams (eds.), Geographies of peace: New approaches to boundaries, diplomacy and conflict resolution, London/New York: IB Tauris. 109–130.
UCP Research Database
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