Evaluations, Research & Impact
"I want to change the situation that women are in. I want to be a voice of women and peace," reflected Maypal, a woman who leads unarmed civilian protection activities in Lankien, South Sudan. She is a member of a Women's Protection Team and sees the direct impact of her work. Following successful advocacy to the governer regarding displacement of flooding victims, Maypal proudly noted, "My voice was heard."
Unarmed Civilian Protection is an approach to the protection of civilians in violent conflict that utilises nonviolent strategies to protect civilians and interrupt cycles of violence. Practices of Unarmed Civilian Protection are implemented by unarmed civilians, who protect their fellow civilians. It is a suite of practices that have global applicability but are responsive to local context, with effective examples of Unarmed Civilian Protection utilised in diverse contexts. Across the world, civilians are implementing Unarmed Civilian Protection with great effect.
- Mitigating Tensions Between Community Members and Duty Bearers | Iraq | January 2023
- Rebuilding Social Cohesion Between Communities Through Youth-led Initiatives | Iraq | February 2023
- For the Community, by the Community | Iraq | March 2023
- The Independence and Resilience of Bentiu’s Women Protection Team in the Midst of Flooding Challenges | South Sudan | April 2023
- Who to Turn To? Reporting, Addressing, and Preventing Digital Extortion of Women and Girls in South Mosul | Iraq | April 2023 | English | Arabic
- Tarshana Project Update | Sudan | Novemember 2022
- Children as agents of peace: The creation of a Children’s Peace Club in Jeddah 5 IDP Camp | Iraq | November 2022 | English | Arabic
- Protection to guarantee girls’ education: How NP’s patrols enabled safe access to education in Ba’aj | Iraq | October 2022 | English | Arabic
- A step ahead on the road: Strengthening Mosul-South Mosul service provision | Iraq | July 2022 | English | Arabic
- When women speak out: Enhancing responsive governance through women’s engagement in public forums | Iraq | July 2022 | English | Arabic
- Step by Step: How a Group of Former Women Combatants are Moving Towards Peace | Philippines | June 2022
- Case Studies on Social Cohesion, Emergency Protection, WPS | South Sudan | April - June 2022
- Advocating Against Eviction in Rey Al Jazeera | Iraq | April 2022 | English | Arabic
- Reconciling a family and preventing conflict: Shuttle negotiations and violence prevention in Ba’aj District | Iraq | March 2022 | English | Arabic
- Muslim Farmers Helping Rewrite the Script of Femininity | Philippines | March 2022
- A Civilian Brings Inspiration to Other Civilians | Philippines | March 2022
- Restoring Relationships Through Communal Dialogue in Ngoja | South Sudan | February 2022
- Engaging local youth in peaceful conflict resolution | Iraq | December 2021 | English | Arabic
- Dreaming and Acting Together: Building Real Community Safety in Minneapolis | United States | October 2021
- Increasing The Safety and Security of Civilians in Bentiu Cattle Camps | South Sudan | July 2021
- The Brooklyn Liberation March: Youth and Gender-Based Unarmed Civilian Protection in New York City | United States | June 2021
- Case Studies & Success Stories | South Sudan | April - June 2021
- A Pathway to Peaceful Coexistence: Joint Efforts of the Inter-Community Peace Committee Initiative | Juba, South Sudan | April 2021
- Sustainable Peace, Social Cohesion and Women's Participation: The Success of the East Mudri Peace Forum | South Sudan | January 2021
- Case Studies & Success Stories | South Sudan | January - March 2021
- Mahad's Women Umbrella Group Taking Initiative Against GBV | Juba, South Sudan | December 2020
- Promoting peaceful coexistence between IDPs and host communities in Juba | Juba, South Sudan | December 2020
- Advocating for Community Safety: Nzara Women's Protection Team Taking Action | Yambio, South Sudan | December 2020
- Youth Protection Teams Preventing Gender Based Violence in Raja Town | Raja, South Sudan | December 2020
- Providing Protection at Polls During the U.S. 2020 Elections | United States | November 2020
- Addressing Protection of Women and Girls with NP’s Outreach Workers | Juba, South Sudan | November 2020
- Women Peace and Security | South Sudan | July - September 2020
- NP Philippines Case Studies: COVID-19 Response and Peacebuilding | Philippines | July - September 2020
- Protecting Civilians from Unexploded Ordinance through Community Engagement and Humanitarian Coordination | Rubkona County, Unity State, South Sudan | July 2020
- Preventing and Responding to Violence in Juba POC | Juba, South Sudan | June 2020
- Engaging with Armed Groups to Promote Social Cohesion and Reduce Violence in Communities | Mundri, South Sudan | June 2020
- Case Studies and Success Stories | South Sudan | October - December 2020
- Case Studies and Success Stories | South Sudan | July - September 2020
- Case Studies and Success Stories | South Sudan | January - March 2020
- Protecting Communities in Flood-Affected Areas | Duk Payuel County, Jonglei State, South Sudan | February 2020
- Strengthening Local Peace and Protection Mechanisms in Greater Ulang | Ulang, South Sudan | February 2020
- Youth Protection Team (YPT) Outreach in New Site to Raise Awareness on Gender-Based Violence and HIV | Wau, South Sudan | January 2020
- Increasing the Safety and Security of Civilians in Bentiu Town through Night Patrols | Bentiu, South Sudan | January 2020
- Increasing Community Awareness and Improving Response to Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (SGBV) in Yeri | Mundri, South Sudan | January 2020
2016 - 2019
- Preventing Gender-Based Violence through the Protective Presence in Sikasi Area | Bentiu, South Sudan | November 2019
- Fighting Stigma around Gender-Based Violence (GBV): How Women Protection Team Help the GBV Survivors to Recover | Juba, South Sudan | November 2019
- WPT Meeting with Protection Actors Leads to Resumption of Night Patrols | Bentiu, South Sudan | November 2019
- Building Peace and Addressing Gender-Based Violence in Agok through Women Protection Teams | Wau, South Sudan | October 2019
- Women in Mathiang Payam Come Together to Stop the Dispersion of Inter-Clan Fighting | Rumbek, South Sudan | October 2019
- Empowering Women through the Formation of the Women’s Protection Team: WPT Launch in Ganyiel | Ganyiel, South Sudan | September 2019
- Unarmed Civilian Protection (UCP) and its Application in South Sudan: An Informational Guide | South Sudan | September 2019
- From Gang Fights to Peace Marches: Nurturing Youth Peace Leadership through Engagement and Role-Modeling | Juba, South Sudan | August 2019
- Protection Beyond the POC: Accompanying Women During Firewood Collection | Bentiu, South Sudan | August 2019
- From Protection to Advocacy and Action: Women Protection Teams Respond to Service Reductions | Aburoc, South Sudan | August 2019
- Nyadeep Wagak Puot, "Ambassador of Peace:" Empowering Women Through Unarmed Civilian Protection Training | Bentiu, South Sudan | July 2019
- Raising Awareness, Mobilizing Change: Focusing Community Attention on Gender Based Violence | Northern Bahr el Ghazal, South Sudan | June 2019
- Waging Peace One Dispute at a Time: Resolving Conflict with Nonviolent Peacforce’s Early Warning/Early Response Council | Mundri, South Sudan | May 2019
- Empowering Women, Protecting Communities: Mentoring Rumbek’s Women to Protect their Communities | Rumbek, South Sudan | April 2019
- From WPT to Member of Parliament: The Story of Mama Achol | Rumbek, South Sudan | February 2019
- "Empowering Community Council of Elders as Advocates on Gender Based Violence Prevention and Response": A Case Study of Adam Uchalla Ungom | South Sudan | October 2017
- Women Intervening to Prevent Intercommunal Violence: An Update on the Kook Women's Peacekeeping Team | South Sudan | April 2017
- "Women's Peacekeeping Team from Wau Shilluk to Aburoc": A Case Study from Josephina Edward Sedwa | South Sudan | August 2017
- Case Studies of Unarmed Civilian Protection | March 2016
2011 - 2015
A new story of security
“This course allowed me to demystify the protection of civilians because I thought it was the prerogative of armed actors only. Understanding that this protection must be done by civilians reinforces my desire to contribute to it."
"As a peacebuilder, I believe that my voice can be a tool in helping my co-youth and community towards peace and development ... I’m now confident in my capacity to lead and act in my community."
A young man,
IDP Camp, Iraq
“We learned that we can prevent problems if we control our feeling when we feel angry and this will reduce or prevent violence as well as controlling ourselves helps us maintain the relationship among each other.”
“The work that Nonviolent Peaceforce is doing is not only needed and helpful, but volunteering with NP also gives me a place where I am able to create community, which is incredibly important.”
We’ve known for a long time that Unarmed Civilian Protection works because of the testimonies of communities and field teams around the world. In addition, the published evidence for Unarmed Civilian Protection as a viable and effective approach is strong, and growing stronger. The below provide an overview of research on Unarmed Civilian Protection practices across a range of contexts.
Research and Evaluations
Research and Reports by NP
- Gaps in Formal Education in Iraq | Iraq | December 2021
A research study conducted by the Education Consortium of Iraq (ECI) – comprised of the Norwegian Refugee Council, Save the Children, Mercy Corps, and NP– has identified areas to improve in education infrastructure, personnel, and reintegration of students into the formal system across six governorates.
Link to the Report
- Building Peace Changing Lives: Role and Participation of Women in Peace and Security in Myanmar, Philippines and Thailand | Philippines | March 23, 2021
This study, conducted by NP Philippines in collaboration with the Canada Fund for Local Initiatices (CFLI). This study presents lessons learned and conclusions to highlight the significant gains of women peacebuilding and emphasize the need for concrete actions to implement and institutionalize WPS agenda in the three countries in particular and in ASEAN in general.
Link: Policy Brief
- Strengthening the Safe School Community | United States | October 2020
Exploring the Work and Objectives of School Safety and Security Specialists. Conducted by Rand Engel for Nonviolent Peaceforce & Nonviolence International.
Link to Paper
Women Contributing to Peace | Myanmar | March 6, 2019
The study, conducted NP in partnership with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), collected data from August 2018 to January 2019. The map, intended as a quick guide, lists 674 women from 383 organizations who contribute to peace building.
Link: Electronic copies of the maps, along with additional information about women contributing to peace in Myanmar
Link: Press release from U.S. Embassy in Burma
Reviews and Evaluations of NP
- "Protection Needs and Capacities of Youth: A Preliminary Report Exploring Youth Protection in Myanmar" - July 2018
- "Promoting Women’s Role in Peace Building and Gender Based Violence Prevention in South Sudan": Midterm Evaluation Report - October 2017
- "Implementing Civilian Protection in the United States: Lessons Learned from the Dakota Access Pipeline at Standing Rock, North Dakota" - December 2016 – March 2017
- "Civilians Protecting Civilians through Ceasefire Monitoring:" Civilian Ceasefire Monitoring in Myanmar 2012-2016 -- October 2016
- "Final Evaluation Report: Civilian Ceasefire Monitoring Project" by Swisspeace - January 2016
- Nonviolent Peaceforce South Sudan - One Year of Civil War (2013-2014)
- Mediateur Report, Canan Gündüz and Raul Torralba - Evaluation of the Nonviolent Peaceforce Project with the Civilian Protection Component of the International Monitoring Team in Mindanao, Philippines - Final Report. 6 May 2014
- Nine Years of Nonviolent Peaceforce in Sri Lanka. Lessons Learned in Implementing Unarmed Civilian Peacekeeping - By Christine Schweitzer, September 2012
- NP Evaluation in the Philippines, October 2011 - February 2012
- Nonviolent Peaceforce Evaluation of NP’s Project in Mindanao, Philippines REPORT by Dr. Cordula Reimann (2010)
- Unarmed Civilian Protection Updates, Challenges & Opportunities (2022)
- Global review of good practices in the field of unarmed civilian protection
- "Examining Unarmed Civilian Protection in the UN Context: A Complement and Contribution to POC," Consultation for Member States, New York (2019).
- “Unarmed Civilian Peacekeeping,” Documentation of a symposium, Bonn (2015).
- "What would the UN Peace Operations Panel Recommend if it were led by Women, Civil Society Organizations, and Local Actors Living in Conflict?" Event report, NGO CSW Forum Parallel Event, New York (2015).
- Doss, A. "Unarmed Civilian Peacekeeping: Has its Time Come?" Aide Mémoire, Geneva Briefing and Dialogue (2013).
- Cabactulan, L & C Coleman. "Broadening the concept of Peacekeeping: the Contribution of Civil Society to Unarmed Protection of Civilians." High-Level Briefing at the United Nations, New York (2012).
UCP Research Highlights
Research on UCP
- Gray, Felicity. "Relational R2P? Civilian-Led Prevention and Protection against Atrocity Crimes", Global Responsibility to Protect (published online ahead of print 2022).
- Gray, Felicity. “Chapter 11: ‘A Different Kind of Weapon’: Ethical Dilemmas and Nonviolent Civilian Protection." Wicked Problems: The Ethics of Action for Peace, Rights, and Justice, Oxford University Press, New York, 2022.
- Easthom, Tiffany. “Community Resiliency, Conflict, and COVID-19.” Peace Review 33, no.2 (2021): 263-269
- Oakley, Derek. “What Is the Relationship between the Situated Learning of Unarmed Civilian Protection Workers and Gendered Power Dynamics?” Lancaster University, Lancaster, 2020, p. 236.
- Julian, Rachel, "The Transformative Impact of Unarmed Civilian Protection," Global Society 34(1): 99-111, 2020.
- Pax Christi International, A Policymaker’s Tool for Effective, Nonviolent Strategies for Sustainable Peace," October 2021.
- Harley Henigson, “Community Engagement in UN Peacekeeping Operations: A People-Centered Approach to Protecting Civilians,” International Peace Institute, November 2020.
- McCarthy, Eli S., ed. A Just Peace Ethic Primer: Building Sustainable Peace and Breaking Cycles of Violence. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2020.
- Rachel Julian and Russell Gasser (2019) ‘Soldiers, Civilians and Peacekeeping – Evidence and False Assumptions’, International Peacekeeping 26(1): 22-54.
- Wallace, M.S. Security without Weapons: Rethinking Violence, Nonviolent Action, and Civilian Protection (Interventions). New York: Routledge, 2017.
- Furnari, Ellen. Wielding Nonviolence in the Midst of Violence: Case Studies of Good Practices in UCP. Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2016
- "Unarmed Civilian Protection: The Methodology and Its Relevance for Norwegian Church-Based Organizations and Their Partners" by the Norwegian Ecumenical Peace Platform - October 2016
- Furnari, Ellen, Huibert Oldenhuis, and Rachel Julian. "Securing space for local peacebuilding: the role of international and national civilian peacekeepers." Peacebuilding 3, no. 3 (2015): 297-313.
- Julian, Rachel, and Christine Schweitzer. "The Origins and Development of Unarmed Civilian Peacekeeping." Peace Review 27, no. 1 (2014): 1-8.
- Rossi, Alessandro. “The Glass Ceiling for UCP in Inter-Governmental Organizations.” Peace Review 27, no. 1 (2014): 9-17.
- Eguren, Luis Enrique. “The Notion of Space in International Accompaniment.” Peace Review 27, no. 1 (2014): 18-24.Eguren, Luis Enrique. “The Notion of Space in International Accompaniment.” Peace Review 27, no. 1
- Furnari, Ellen. “Relationships Are Critical for Peacekeeping.” Peace Review 27, no.1 (2014): 25-30
- Easthom, Tiffany. “The South Sudan Weapons Free Zone.” Peace Review 27, no.1 (2014): 31-36
- Wallis, Tim. “Saving Lives, Saving Souls.” Peace Review 27, no. 1 (2014): 37-42
- Engelbrecht, Georgi and Vidushi Kaushik. “Community-Based Protection Mechanisms.” Peace Review 27, no. 1 (2014): 43-51
- Gehrmann, Richard. Matt Grant and Samantha Rose. “Australian Unarmed Peacekeepers on Bougainville, 1997–2003.” Peace Review 27, no. 1 (2014): 52-60
- Venturi, Bernardo. "Mainstreaming Unarmed Civilian Peacekeeping." Peace Review 27, no. 1 (2014): 61-66.
- Beckman, Kara, and Solberg, Kenneth B. “Measuring the Impact of Unarmed Civilian Peacekeeping: A Pilot Study” (2013).
- Carrière, Rolf, Rachel Julian, Christine Schweitzer, and Tim Wallis. Civilian peacekeeping: a barely tapped resource. Edited by Christine Schweitzer. Belm-Vehrte: Sozio-Publ., 2010.
- Schweitzer, Christine. “Nonviolent Peaceforce Feasibility Study,” Feasibility Study, Hamburg/St. Paul, 2001.
Sampling of Related Works
- Felicity Gray (2022) 'Protection as connection: feminist relational theory and protecting civilians from violence in South Sudan', Journal of Global Ethics 18(1): 152-170.
- Jana Krause, Erin Kamler (2022) 'Ceasefires and Civilian Protection Monitoring in Myanmar', Global Studies Quarterly 2(1).
- Margaux Pinaud (2021) ‘Home-Grown Peace: Civil Society Roles in Ceasefire Monitoring’, International Peacekeeping 28(3): 470-495.
- Congo Research Group (2020), Building Relationships, Building Peace: The Role of Civilians and Civil Society in Preventing Mass Atrocities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Washington D.C.: United State Holocaust Memorial Museum.
- Peris Jones and Wangui Kimari (2019) ‘Security beyond the men: Women and their everyday security apparatus in Mathare, Nairobi’, Urban Studies 56(9): 1835-1849.
- Joseph Bock et al. (2019) Halting Hate: How to Use the Interruption Model to Counter Hate-Motivated Violence, American Arbitration Association.
- Jana Krause (2018) Resilient Communities: Non-Violence and Civilian Agency in Communal War, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Nerve Macaspac (2019) ‘Insurgent Peace: Community-Led Peacebuilding of Indigenous Peoples in Sagada, Philippines’, Geopolitics 24(4): 839-877.
- Oliver Kaplan (2017) Resisting War: How Communities Protect Themselves, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Veronique Dudouet (2017) Powering to Peace: Integrated Civil Resistance and Peacebuilding Strategies, International Center on Nonviolent Conflict, vol. 1.
- Landon Hancock (2016) ‘Agency and peacebuilding: The promise of local zones of peace’, Peacebuilding, 5(3), 255–269.
- Jeffrey A. Butts (et al.) (2015) ‘Cure violence: A public health model to reduce gun violence’, Annual Review of Public Health (36): 39–53.
- Georgi Engelbrecht and Vidushi Kaushik (2015) ‘Community-based protection mechanisms’, Peace Review 27(1), 43–51.
- Sara Koopman (2014) ‘Making space for peace: International protective accompaniment in Colombia’, in F. McConnell, N. Megoran, & P. Williams (eds.), Geographies of peace: New approaches to boundaries, diplomacy and conflict resolution, London/New York: IB Tauris. 109–130.
UCP Research Database
Creating Safer Space
User-friendly way of finding the latest research on unarmed civilian protection, community self-protection and related topics.